Thursday, October 11, 2007

Amazing Benin

In 1602 the Dutch merchant Pieter de Marees described the city of Edo (now Benin City), capital of the Benin Empire, this way: "The walled city of Benin is composed by a system of huge straight streets. These streets, although not paved, are very wide and well maintained [...]. Fine and big wooden houses are based along the streets, provided with covered porchs [...]. The king's court is very big, with galleries as large as the largest in Amsterdam, constantly watched, and supported by wooden pillars encased with copper on which engravings with past battles were depicted. I went so deep inside this building that, wherever I looked around, I could see gate after gate that finished in other places" [de Marees, 1602].

In his work "Description of Guinea", where he compiled information about uses and habitudes of indigenous people of the Benin Coast, de Marees mainly described the people as "bellicose, promiscuous, savage and thiefs". However, he managed to capture many aspects of the advanced Bini culture.

Amazing Benin

In effect, Europeans there found an Empire with a complex administrative system. The king, the Oba, exercised a great religious power (in fact the country never converted to Christianism) and also political, although the latter was supervised by two councils, an hereditary one (the Uzama) and an elected one, composed by territory chiefs, and lot of influence over the Oba's decisions. Most of the kings in the nearby territories also had a non hereditary title elected by the people.

The Benin Empire culture was, contrary to the one of European colonizers, very social. As long as in Europe the land was seen as a property and an investment, in Africa it was a common property, in which each individual possessed the right to work parts of it, but never over the land itself, as it belonged to the clan or the community. The same way, the name of new born children was decided as common agreement of the people.


A tricky Golden Age

The arrival of the Portuguese meant a deep social change. The Bini did not have the habitude of making trade exchanges aiming luxury, but the behaviour of land possession eagerness, characteristic of Europeans, was finally imitated by the indigenous. "As time passed by, they earned so much knowledge about their products that they almost surpassed us" [de Marees, 1602]. In effect, after a time of trade agreements, Africans understood that Europeans did not have the gold from Benin neither the copper from Sahara, so they had the power of rising prices as there were more and more clients and it was an increasingly valuable business, to the extent that "they became so proud and anxious as greedy rich men. After realising it was good merchandise, they tried by all means to falsify gold itself, transforming 100 grams in 150 and this way cheating foreigners".

Benin people had a deep alcohol culture, as they constantly used it in celebrations of births, offerings, worship to the land and lots of social rites. They distilled it from honey, plants and millet, and produced a kind of low graduation rum, so that when they tried the strong liquor Europeans brought, alcoholism became a common illnes. De Marees said that "they were naturally great drinkers" and, because of the lack of habit to this drink, became easily aggressive. This circumstance was very used by Europeans, together with traffic of firearms, in order to promote tribal wars that became a source to start slave trade.

This way, the Benin Empire complemented gold trade with ivory, pepper, furs, and specially slaves obtained in wars. Along the 16th and 17th centuries, it became the richest and most powerful Empire in West Africa, and a trade class appeared with a desire for luxury comparable to the Western one. British explorers realised the Oba was able to rise an army of twenty thousand men in one single day, and up to one hundred thousand men if necessary.
The end of the Empire came with the abolishment of slavery, of which its wealth had become totally dependent, and Benin entered a period of decadence that meant a lowering of richness, territorial losses and migration. This way, in 1897, the British occupied and pillaged the city of Edo. The kingdom became the protectorate of Nigeria, and the magnificent Bini artworks are now kept in a room in the British Museum.

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Mountain Biking in Nepal.

Yam Panta said...

A One Nepal Trek Pvt. Ltd. (your Trekking and Tour consultant since many years ago) is an ecologically perceptive Trekking Agency in Nepal specializing in giving you nepal, tibet , bhutan, the manner you want to peer it , also owned & managed by means of nearby experts Nepal Adventure Activities organization advocated through lonely planet Nepal journey guide e-book, lonely planet hiking in Nepal Himalaya ebook & trip marketing consultant. A One Nepal Trek Pvt. Ltd. & day trip is an Trekking Agency in Nepal, established with the aid of a crew of specialists worried tourism considering a long time for committed provide the provider a home away from domestic. a group of hospitable and expert geared up to welcome and escort you through recreational activities inclusive of trekking in Nepal, Nepal tour package, nepal journey bundle excursions, nepal trekking tour, Nepal Adventure in Himalaya, nepal top hiking, nepal air ticketing, nepal river rafting, nepal jungle safari, nepal sightseeing tour, excursion in nepal, kathmandu valley sightseeing, Nepal resort reservation, tibet tour, tibet trekking, bhutan tour, bhutan trekking.
Local Trekking Company in Nepal established by Yam Bahadur Pant has over 20 years and reasonable cost and Custom Itinerary to All Valuable clients in Nepal. A One Nepal offer many type of Activities as Annapurna base camp, Everest Base Camp, Ghorepani Poon Hill, Upper Mustang, manaslu Circuit, Langtang Valley, Island Peak, Mera Peak and Many Others Activities in Nepal.

Rabin Gurung said...

Most of the People are knows Where is Everest Base Camp Trek is a top destination in the world because those trekkers are planning to hike if they
have enough for fitness and healthy and also enough budget first try 10 Days Everest Base Camp, Everest Base Camp trek 12 days, Everest Base Camp Trek 13 days,
Everest Base Camp Trek 14 days. these trip are depended budget and physical fitness. Because There are many route and most challenging path and passes above 5400 meters as chola, Renjola and kong mala.
Everest Base Camp Trek cost is not any type of designation trekkers choices. if you have just hired a guide and self-paying rest of the thing that
would cheaper but take full board packages then cost does higher. Everest Trekking Routes Organized as flexible time and custom Everest Base Camp Trek
Itinerary
for Everest Base Camp Trek Route. Because tour organizer has been over 20 years experience in this industry. only Kathmandu to Lukla
and Lukla to Kathmandu domestic flight ticket is expensive and rest of thing are compared to another trekking route as cheap Everest base Camp Trek.
These days most of Asian Country search on Internet as EBC Trekking that country are Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, honking, Indonesia, and China.

Sappa Lama Gomso said...

Everest Base Camp Trek is one of those journeys that create your vacation dreams return true. Hiking on the legendary foothills just under the mighty Mount Everest 8848m with exciting views of the master peaks will solely be found within the Everest Region. This celebrated trek is thought worldwide for its trailblazing routes & the landscapes speak to your senses. On this trip you furthermore Mera peak out at the celebrated Kala Patthar (5,600m/18,373ft) read purpose for a few grand direct views of the very best mountain in the world. Everest Base CampTrek additionally includes different celebrated eight thousand peaks like Mt mountain peak (8,516m /27,940ft), Makalu (8,485m /27,838 ft) Cho-Oyu (8,201m /26,906ft). The culture of this specific space is of nice notebook stuff & interacting with the native of us puts a lot of zest into your venturesome journey as you walk through the Khumbu region of the Asian country. This legendary path could be a psychological thriller for top & wild hikers World Health Organization want the tread the methods wherever legends walked before on their thanks to conquering mountain peak, some did some didn’t however the Everest Base Camp Trek path keeps those legends alive for many trekkers World Health Organization head to the present region. The trip begins with a stirring mountain flight to Lukla, one among the world’s highest mountains; & as shortly as you set down at that altitude, the remainder is history. Your hike takes you to the favored village city of Namche, referred to as the ‘gateway to the Khumbu’’ & from there on you rehearse quiet monasteries with the acknowledge Sherpa of us World Health Organization inhabit this region & their culture is price noting. On the way, we have a tendency to visit the Sagarmatha parkland, home to some rare fauna & flora, this additionally wherever we have a tendency to adapt for a few time. We head deep into the Khumbu hiking into the forest of shrub, birch trees & pine, with colorful villages wherever we have a tendency to square measure sincerely welcome by the Sherpa community. we have a tendency to square measure pleasantly stunned to return across a hospital-based mostly in Khunde and health post at Pheriche that shows this region not solely cares for the locals however also are able to look out of trekkers World Health Organization have altitude issues. Doctors square measure invariably at the post for aid treatment. The Everest Base Camp Trek is arduous however varied teahouses square measure found on the paths providing smart grubbed to shelter from the generally harsh climate. Our trek culminates at base camp so we have a tendency to create a path for Namche as we have a tendency to hike back to Lukla to rendezvous for our flight to Katmandu. we have a tendency to add an additional contingency day for inclement weather which will delay flights. It’s recommended to be pretty acceptable to undertake this journey; you only want some smart hiking exercise before doing this trip. And Nepal Base Camp Treks can do the remainder to allow you AN action-packed odyssey of a period.

Sappa Lama Gomso said...

Annapurna Base Camp Trek is one in every one of the big ranges that expand from Vara-Shikar (Annapurna Fang) towards Manaslu and Lamjung range that is roughly 60-70 kilometer of lateral distance. which has one peak over eight,000 meters, 13 peaks over seven,000 meters, and sixteen additional over half dozen,000 meters. The landscape of the region provides breathtaking sceneries. the first morning views of the mountains square measure majestic. The sunrise views from on the trail of the trek square measure breathtaking. The treks mix such a large amount of totally different landscapes and convey you, therefore, getting ready to the bottom of seven,000 and 8,000-meter peaks.Annapurna Base Camp trekking designed by Nepal Base Camp Treks is one in every of the foremost loved trekking destinations. throughout the trek except witnessing made cultural diversity, you'll additionally withstand remote farms still as villages occupied by Gurung ethnic tribes WHO square measure popularly celebrated everywhere the planet for his or her bravery. you'll be able to expertise the culture, previous traditions, and spiritual values of grunge individuals. To begin ten days Annapurna Base Camp, we are going to drive to Nayapul from Pokhara and walk right along the trail and keep on trekking downhill following a watercourse to Birethanti. Also, we are going to climb to Jhinu danda wherever we will get pleasure from tumbling within the natural spring. On the thanks to Dovan, we are going to be rewarded by the outstanding views of Mt. Machhapuchhre, Annapurna South, and Huinchuli. Plus, we are going to pass Chomrong, an oversized Gurung village. we are going to additionally pass the tree-plant full of bamboo and bush trees beside the Modi watercourse and reach Donovan. Then we are going to walk for six hours to urge to Annapurna Base Camp lies at the elevation of four,095m via Machhapuchhre base camp that fantastically assaults the northern aspect of the very giant Mt. Machhapuchhre. Walking for around four hours we are going to reach Annapurna Base Camp that enthralls the North American nation with the putting views of the world’s tenth highest Annapurna I ( eight,091 m), Mt. Machhapuchhre Annapurna South, Huinchuli and additional. Trekking Guide Team offers a wonderful probability to travel for Annapurna Base Camp that is one in every of the foremost picturesque and exciting set within the heart of the nice Mt. Annapurna. we are going to cause you to feel the nice distinction if you choose to travel with North American nation since our good staffs and hospitable porters will certainly cause you to trek safe, comfy and unforgettable.

Buna Treks & Expedition Pvt. Ltd. said...

Why Trekking in Nepal Nepal?, a land of high hills, mountains, raging rivers and verdant deep jungles of Terai & its rich lifestyle makes one of the most sought locations inside the map of the world. a destination for all season as it's miles one of the most numerous and varied international locations on this planet a unique us of a nestled inside the excellent snow capped variety is some other advent of the mom earth and it embraces worlds' 8 highest peaks from mt.everest, mt.kanchenjonga, mt.lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Dhaulagiri, Manaslu to Annapurna massive. nepal is likewise the beginning location of Buddha (light of Asia). The Buna Treks is Local Base Under Nepal Government Trekking Agency in Nepal. blessed with wealthy nature, the brilliant Himalayan in Nepal range stretches from the far north-west to the way east where the worlds highest 8th eight-thousanders are in Nepal. nepal gives a enthralling adventure with enough time to wonder the encompassing beautiful landscapes and immerse with its warm human beings, imparting you full of range and enchantment from the low lands of Gangetic plains and its verdant dense jungle where the endangered species of Royal Bengal tigers and the one-horned rhinoceros roam, to the mythical yak and yeti trail to Everest.as the adventure and leisure tourism was hooked up in view that late 1960 and 70’s quality travel & trekking enterprise have mushroomed by using a tourism professionals Nepalese, and were leading countless of adventure trips in the course of Himalaya consisting of rafting, mountain climbing also organize adventure trekking, and entertainment trips which includes tailor-made itineraries for own family, college companies and company executives. Many of Trekking Company in Nepal are not perfect trip dealing, they have not enough Experienced. Trekking in Nepal, Nepal is domestic to community of trails also known as the amazing Himalaya trails, an extensive trail gadget that covers Nepal from humble and Darchula within the west to Kanchenjunga in the east. the range of Trekking in Nepal cannot be located in any other location of the world. in fact, the lowest factor in Nepal is fifty-nine m above sea-level inside the terai location even as the very best point is Everest, eight,848 m above sea-level, the two factors are, in a direct line, most effective two hundred kilometers aside. the majority of visitors to Nepal are available through the Tribhuvan international airport in Kathmandu. it's far in Kathmandu that trekkers want to accumulate their permits and other documentation, both from a trekking agent or from the best places of work. those files will be checked along the hiking route. for people with little time to spend in Nepal, there are half of-day hikes from Kathmandu to witness breathtaking Himalayan Trekking in Nepal perspectives in any other case trek for weeks over stunning tough mountain passes. as much as the mid-1960s just a few trekkers had generally visited Nepal and lower back then as part of corporations of excursion fans. the various huge expeditions of the day recommended trekkers to join up in an try to help balance the investment.

Dhansingh Gurung Gurung said...

Manaslu Tsum Valley Trekking is freshly open trekking path in Manaslu region. Manaslu Tsum Valley trekking supply stunning Himalayan views of Mt. Manaslu 8163m, Mt. mountain peak 8167m, Mt. Annapurna8091m, twenty-three different mountain peaks, stunning landscape, Tsum Valley and mixed Nepalese culture. Manaslu Tsum Valley trek could be a sacred Everest Trekking Routes circled by the Baudha Himal and Himal Chuli to the west, Ganesh Himal to the South and Sringi Himal to the north. Tsum Valley trekking is finite by 3 high passes Ngula Dhoj Hyang (5093 m.) to the west and Yamdro Pass (5326 m). Tsum word comes from the Tibetan word 'Tsombo', which suggests vividly. Manaslu tsum natural depression trekking tour is restricted trekking in the Kingdom of Nepal and needed special trekking to allow through legal Nepal trekking agency and minimum 2 people participant obligatory trekking in Manaslu Tsum natural depression space. The smart good shape and minimum 3 we tend treks vacation needed for Tsum Valley Trekking, however, Everest Trekking Routes prepare customized trekking service as per trekkers want and vacation schedule. Fall & spring season is the best time trekking in Tsum natural depression, however, we tend to ETR prepare around the year as per trekkers vacation schedule.Manaslu Tsum Valley trekking begins at Arughat Bazaar Gorkha once 6-7 hours drive from Kathmandu. Everest Trekking Routes trekking guide LED through stunning Valley of Machhikhola, Jagat Lakpa River Dupchet and at last reach the Tsum natural depression. Tsum natural depression Trekking has completely different choices Manaslu Circuit Larke larke la pass trekking, Tsum Valley, Manaslu circuit trekking, Manaslu Rupina La pass trekking or solely Tsum natural depression trek begin from Arughat and finish at the same place. Ordinarily, inhabitation / tented trekking is additional appropriate and cozy for Manaslu Tsum Valley trekking however currently a day’s tea house/lodge trekking is worn out this space. We tend to Everest Trekking Routes prepare either tea house or inhabitation trekking as per trekkers want and need. We’ve mentioned below 3 completely different choices trekking in Manaslu tsum Valley, however, trekking itinerary style in keeping with travelers/trekker’s demand.the part of Annapurna and Ganesh Himal between Wilderness and Restricted area of Nepal.


Shiva Excursion said...

Trekking in Nepal is one in all the favored commercial enterprise activities in Nepal trekking is one in all the simplest means of experiencing the natural beauty and wealthy cultural
heritage of Nepal. Nepal treks offers snow capped views of Nepal Himalaya, stunning landscape, totally different ethnic teams & their traditions, welcome, lush valleys through forests of bush, bamboo, oak, and hemlock, visiting one or 2 villages to next trekking destination. Nepal isn't merely walking hiking sooner or later when another, it's rather a gradual means of experiencing of Nepal's diversity in terms of earth science, people, faith and a large vary of culture. Shiva Excursion is Local Trekking Agency in Nepal may be each day hike to nduce to the highest on a mountain or a ridge for the spectacular views of mountain chain peaks or it may be a hiking for a month passing through villages within the shadow of lofty snow peaks, valleys, notch experiencing wealthy culture, custom and also the impressive views of the Himalaya in Asian nation. the target of Trekking in Nepal isn't simply the actual destination, however the journey itself. You travel at a modest pace, observant nature, rural communities, and spectacular mountain panoramas whereas you're trekking in Himalaya . Shiva Excursion old trekking guide can lead for path finding an introduction to the native individuals, culture, faith and mode. Under Nepal Government License holder Trekking Company in Nepal which is lead by Over 20 Years Trekking and Tour Operation Highly Recommend Everest Base Camp Trek and Annapurna Base Camp Trek. Because these Trip are most Popular and Challenging and top Destination in Nepal. Most of the Adventure, Moderate, and Easy hiking and Hard Passes Organized in Nepal. not that much enough some of Top Peak Climbing as Island Peak Climbing, Mera Peak Climbing, Lobuche Peak and Many others real adventure path of Nepal. In Nepal More then 3000 threkking Agencies and all are competion for the business sector. Some one selling cheapest and some one selling top and quality service. those Agencies as over 30% are fake travel dealing.